Kidney Disorders & Treatments

Kidney Stones

Urine contains many dissolved minerals and salts. When your urine has high levels of these minerals and salts, you can form stones. Kidney stones can start small but can grow larger in size, even filling the inner hollow structures of the kidney. Some stones stay in the kidney, and do not cause any problems. Sometimes, the kidney stone can travel down the ureter, the tube between the kidney and the bladder. If the stone reaches the bladder, it can be passed out of the body in urine. If the stone becomes lodged in the ureter, it blocks the urine flow from that kidney and causes pain.

Common symptoms of kidney stones are :

-A sharp, cramping pain in the back and side, often moving to the lower abdomen or groin. Some women say the pain is worse than childbirth labor pains. The pain often starts suddenly and comes in waves. It can come and go as the body tries to get rid of the stone.

- A feeling of intense need to urinate.

- Urinating more often or a burning feeling during urination.

-Urine that is dark or red due to blood. Sometimes urine has only small amounts of red blood cells that can’t be seen with the naked eye. • Nausea and vomiting. • Men may feel pain at the tip of their penis.

Causes for kidney stones :

Low urine volume - due ti inadequate fluid intake

Diet - High calcium, oxalate,animal protein

- Obesity

Medical conditions -Hyperparathyroidism,Renal tubular acidosis,Primary Hyperoxaluria,Cystinuria

Medications- Calcium, Vitamin C supplements

Family hisory

Diagnosis :

Clinical and radiological investigations (CT scan is the gold standard)

Treatment options :

Watchful waiting, Medications,Shock wave lithotripsy,

Endoscopic surgeries( Cystoscopy,Ureteroscopy, PCNL)

Renal Infections (Pyelonephritis):

Renal infections can occur due to various reasons. When urine flow is slowed down or blocked, bacteria can more easily travel up the ureters. Some causes of urine obstruction include:

Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)

Abdominal or pelvic masses (as from cancer)

Stones in the bladder, ureters, or kidneys

Kidney stones also contribute by providing a place for bacteria to grow while evading the body's defenses.

People with diabetes or impaired immunity are more likely to get pyelonephritis.Once the infection has spread to the kidney, signs of more severe illness usually result. They include:

- Back pain or flank pain

- Fever (usually present) or chills

- Feeling sick (malaise)

- Nausea and vomiting

- Confusion (especially in the elderly)

Pyelonephritis may cause noticeable changes in the urine, such as :

- Blood in the urine (hematuria)

- Cloudy or foul-smelling urine

- Pain when urinating

- Increased frequency or urgency of urination

Investigations needed:

Urinalysis, Urine culture, Blood culture, CT scan, Ultrasound KUB

Treatment :

Antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment. Most patients are completely treated this way. However, for some patients who have an abcess that needs to be drained or obstruction if present has to be relieved by surgical intervention.

Kidney Tumours:

Kidney tumours can be benign (simple) or cancerous.

Blood in your urine

A lump in your side or abdomen

A loss of appetite

A pain in your side that doesn't go away

Weight loss that occurs for no known reason

Fever that lasts for weeks and isn't caused by a cold or other infection

Extreme fatigue


Swelling in your ankles or legs

A complete physical examination and workup is needed to arrive at the diagnosis

Kidney Failure:

Kidney failure

Other Kidney Problems:

- Papillary Necrosis

- Hydronephrosis

- Pelvi Ureteric Junction Obstruction

Treatment for the above conditions can range from

consevative - observation

Ureterorenoscopy with Stenting

surgical modalities like Pyeloplasty

Call Ray & Rio’s Speciality Clinic today to book and appointment with our Urology experts.

Urologist Appointment: + 91-9840762083.

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