Bladder is the muscular sac that collects the urine from the kidneys and holds it till it is discarded out of the body. The capacity of a bladder is 400 - 600 ml. Urinary Bladder is located in the lower part of the abdomen, just behind the pubic bone.
1. Cystitis: Infection of the urinary bladder or inflammation which causes pain or discomfort or urinary frequency, urgency or blood in urine .
2. Urinary stones: Stones (calculi) may form in the kidney and travel down to the bladder. If calculi block urine flow to or from the bladder, they can cause severe abdomen pain,vomitting and difficulty in passing urine.
3. Bladder cancer: A tumor in the bladder is usually discovered after blood is noticed in the urine. Cigarette smoking and workplace chemical exposures cause most cases of bladder cancer.
4.Urinary incontinence: Involuntary urination/ leakage of urine , which may be chronic. Urinary incontinence can result from a variety of causes.
5. Overactive bladder: The bladder muscle (detrusor) contracts involuntarily, causing some urine to leak out. Detrusor overactivity is a common cause of urinary incontinence.
6. Hematuria: Blood in the urine. Hematuria may be benign, or may be caused by infection or a serious condition like bladder cancer.
7. Urinary retention: Urine does not exit the bladder normally due to obstruction or suppressed bladder muscle activity. The bladder may swell to hold more than a quart of urine. Patient may not be able to void spontaneously , hence a catheter has to be placed into the bladder to empty the urine. And definitive management of the cause of obstruction has to be evaluated and treated accordingly.
8. Cystocele: Weakened pelvic muscles of women (usually from delivery) allow the bladder to press on the vagina. Problems with urination can result.
9. Bed-wetting (nocturnal enuresis): Bed-wetting is defined as a child age 5 or older who wets the bed at least one or two times a week over at least three months.
10. Dysuria (painful urination): Burning micturition, Pain or discomfort during urination due to infection, irritation, or inflammation of the bladder, urethra, or external genitals.
11.Pyuria(Pus in urine) : Cloudy urine, indicates infection of the urinary tract. urine culture has to be done and site of infection has to be identified and treated with antibiotics accordingly before complications occur.
Urine Routine Analysis: This is a routine test of urine, done for problems of either the bladder or kidneys. We look for salts, sediments, deposits, cells in urine. Any abnormailty of the kidneys, bladder can be picked up in this.
Cystoscopy: Its a camera visualisation of the interior of the urethra and bladder. A narrow tube is passed through the urethra into the bladder.
Urodynamic testing: A series of tests of urination, usually done in a doctor’s office. Urine flow, pressure, bladder capacity, and other measurements can help identify bladder problems.
Cystoscopy: After visualising the interior of the bladder through the camera, the urologist can treat bladder problems.
Surgery: Bladder cancer generally needs surgery. Some cases of urinary incontinence and cystocoele may also be treated with surgery.
Bladder catheterization: If urine outflow is obstructed, a catheter may be necessary to relieve pressure in the bladder.
Anti-spasm medications: Medicines can help relieve some bladder (detrusor) overactivity and incontinence.
Kegel exercises: Exercising the pelvic muscles (as when stopping your urine stream) may improve urinary incontinence.
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